Logical Life Religion

The Nature Of God Booklet
Page 1
Creation , In The Beginning
Today We have the advantage of having Scientist. We have a greater understanding of how life began. Yet with all this knowledge Scientist still are not able to figure out how Life Began . We believe that God Created The Heavens and the Earth , We hold this Truth by Faith, We feel there is no better answer for The Creation of The World. We believe that Scientist have proven that the World is millions of years Old.
We believe that God also Created all Life. We believe that Evolution is True. God made all Life, Plants and Animals , Fish and Insects. After Creation all Created Beings Evolved to fit they're Environment. This Belief Also includes Humans.
We Believe that God put everything on Earth , And that every Created Creature and Plant depends on each other for Life. We Believe the way God Created Life. Teaches all Life to care and Love Each Other.
We Believe God is like a Father and Mother Figure. God provides Everything Life needs to survive. All Food and Medication for Health is found in the" Nature" that God Created.
We Believe God gave All Life the Instinct to Live. All of Gods Creation has a Right to Live the best possible Life .
God Don't Interfere with with Life or Natural Processes , God gave Life Free Will. And in No way is God Responsible for any Death.
We Believe Natural Disasters Come as a Result of Our Living Planets Right to Live. And God has given All Life the Ability to Understand the World. We Live In , So Life can seek safety when Needed.
Yes God Created The Universe and All Life , And Through His Creation , We can see His Love For His Creation.
Page 2
(Jesus) - The Man That Changed The World _____________________________________
Jesus was Born into a World of Captivity . Everywhere and in Every Direction . There was suffering for JESUS and His Family. Yes the Roman Empire Ruled the known World. Jesus Parents were Burdened with very high Taxes . The Jewish People needed Help . They themselves were Bitter and Without Hope. Jesus was special in a way that made Him Different from Other Men. Others Believed that they're only way out of Captivity was War. Yet the Jews were no match for the huge Roman Empire. Jesus Loved nature and the world. In His mind all people were Created Equal in the Eyes of God the Creator. Jesus began to follow a movement started by His Cousin John. This Movement would Help the Jewish People remember their past, And return back to the Hope and Love that they had about the Creator God. It had been this kind of thinking that had brought the Jews out of Captivity in they're past History. Could Love again be the key to coming out of Captivity. John would lead the way as leader of the movement. He would tell the Romans of they're wrong doings. He also would be instrumental , John would teach how Love could make a difference , And started something new , If Anyone would Except His Teaching , He would wash them in the River as a way of putting away the old hateful thinking , And They Could join His Movement of Love and Hope. JESUS would join this movement and be Washed. John would later be put to Death for His Criticism of the Roman Government. After Johns Death Jesus would become the New Leader Of The Movement for Love And Hope. The Love Movement was about to get a Boost of Humility and Hope , That would be able to change the World. Jesus like most Jews Believed that there Was One God That Created Everything in Nature , And all People were Created By this One God. He would use the Concept and Term , The Kingdom Of God , This may well have been in Opposition to the current.
Page 3 Kingdoms , Started by Men, That did not use Love As a basis for a Happy Life For All. If You would join The Jesus Movement . You could build up and be apart of this Kingdom of God, That made all People Equal in the eyes of the Creator. This Concept would even make the Jews Uncomfortable . How could the Romans and Others that Despised Them and They Themselves Despised. Become a part of the Movement. Jesus would teach through Nature how God Loved His Creation. And would tell His Followers to Humble themselves to One another. Treat all people with respect . Care for the sick and Elderly. Thousands of People would Join the movement. The World as they had known was being Changed. Jesus would pick twelve Men to Carry this message to other parts of the Roman Empire. Yes the Kingdom of God was spreading . Jesus would show that Men and Women could be one with God. We too could Love and be one with Nature , The World could live in Harmony. Peace and Love could make this World Truly The Kingdom Of God. Because Jesus would walk so close to God and Gods Nature , He would also teach that He Himself could Forgive Sins , And of course We know today. that its is a Humble thing to Forgive Those that Sin Against Us.
Jesus would be accused and Convicted of Blasphemy, Jesus Humbled Himself and did not fight the Charges. He willingly gave His Life on the Cross , Knowing that the Kingdom of God , His Very Movement could not ever be stopped.
Jesus teaching truly did change the World. Love has the Power to change any bad situation into something Wonderful.
Jesus didn't need Miracles to Change the World , He did it with the Love for Nature, God , and Humanity.
Page 4
Ancient gods are in Fact Part Of The Real God
Down through History , There have been many gods. The longest known god is the sun. There is also water , gold images, And hundreds of other things.
The Creator God would in Fact be all the Elements Known to Humanity. And also Elements not yet known to Humans. God is in fact a part of all Creation. If in fact there was a Big Bang or how ever the Universe started. The unknown factor by science can truly be called God. Yes something started this Great Universe.
We Believe that Our God is found in all of Mother Nature. Each part of God is necessary for Life . No one thing on earth or in the heavens is independent of itself . Each Element is important and useful for Life.
God made everything just right for Life. The Sun brings Light and Heat. Water and other Elements are also used to make Life. In fact the very Earth is made of the Elements that also make Life. God is Life , What Caused the World is in fact the World Himself.
God made the World of Himself And God is perfect. Everything should be in Harmony. Anything that is not in Harmony with God is evil or like a infection in the body of God. Yes God truly is what We call Mother Nature , The Beginning of the World truly is Unknown , But God is Real , We see Him every day in Nature.
Page 5
Eternal Life __________
When God Made the World. He made everything to Last forever.
Over Millions of Years and even today. The Earth always Renews itself , Volcanoes are always Busy making New Land. When a Star Explodes another Star is being Born. Yes seems everything
God made always Renews itself.
But what about other life on Earth. What about Humans and Animals. Do We have Renewing Life. Did God give Us away to Live forever.
Yes God is Amazing , He Created (DNA) Deoxyribonucleic Acid , Everything Living from the beginning of the World. Is still alive today.
(See We never Die.) Have You ever looked at Your Children's Baby Picture and Compared With Your Baby Picture , WoW looks almost like the same Baby. Yes We pass Our Life to Our Children. We give them Our Values , Our Morals , Our Knowledge , Yes they become a carbon Copy of Ourselves. You see We never Really Die, We are just made New Again and Again.
Did You know, You have the same DNA as Someone that Lived Thousands of Years ago. And they are still alive today in You, As You Read this Booklet.
This same process of Life is true for all Life that God Created. To some they might think this is Natural. But if You really look at this , It Really look Supernatural.
Yes everything God Created has ( SEED ) . And that also includes the Human Race.
This happens For all Animals , Plants , All Life Renews Itself.
Page 6
First of all just what is Sin. Sin can be described as anything You do that goes Against the Nature Of GOD . It is also something You Do that Breaks the Laws of Your Governments Constitution or local Government.
Because the Nature of God Teaches Us that We should Love Each Other. You can see this by the way God provides all the needs of Every creature He Created. He makes it Rain to make sure all Life has something to Drink. He makes the Sun Shine to keep all Warm . Yes when You do things that Destroys Nature . You are Sinning and Will pay for that Sin by having Dirty Water , Dirty Air, Yes more Sickness And Diseases.
When You Break Government Laws. You know Killing , Stealing, and all other Laws on the Books . You are Sinning and will pay for you Sins, By Fines , Jail , And Prison Time .
Yes We all pay for Our Sins while We are Alive.
The Good news is We can ask for Forgiveness For the things We do. Tell your Friends Your Sorry. Beg the Court for mercy. We still pay for Our Sin . But We feel better about Ourselves , and Others will Respect Us ,
We can get forgiveness From God .'YES ' By Doing things that will Clean Up Our Environment. Treat each Other with Respect and Love. Help by treating Other Life with Respect. Make sure all other Life Has a place to Live. Help the Sick , Feed the Hungry , Do for Others as You See , What God Does For You.
Stop Sinning Today and Be HAPPY !!!!!!!
You may think that Believing in God without Miracles. Is something very strange . But to Us Miracles are still Here everyday . Not walking on water , or Turning water to wine. Raising the Dead , These things we never see in Our Life.
But We do see Miracles everyday . A New Baby being Born. Flowers coming out of the Dirt with all there Beauty. Yes Gods Miracles are what most think of as natural. It's a Miracle how God made Us and all nature to need each other.
But what has this to do with Righteousness. With science finding more answers everyday. The right thing for Gods people is to keep searching for Truth. Unlike Ancient People , Today We have more Answers and Knowledge of Our World. Yet there is no Doubt that something started everything. And there is no better Answer to that than God.
As God has showed to Us Himself in Nature, And provides all Our needs also in Nature. We should not ever let the World forget about God.
God is the Creator of Everything. Science can take Us back to a Big Bang. And to Us that was when God the unknown factor to science Created Everything.
Page 8 Today because of New Scientific Knowledge. And Education of these Truths . Children are Rejecting Religion. And Churches are becoming a thing of the past.
Yes the Real Bible or Quran is not found in a Book. It's found in the very nature of the World Where We Live. You can see a Person in they're Art , And God Painted Us a Beautiful Universe.
It's a Righteous thing to Find God , Today We know that God Created the World to evolve naturally. He shows Us how to Love Each Other , By what He has given Us in Nature. He gave Us Eternal Life from Creation.
Today We Believe it's Time to put away Ancient forms of Religion, And see God as the Great Creator He is , And has been, From the Beginning , Millions of Years Ago.
Truly understanding God and His Nature. Could end Religious Wars, End different Ideologies. And this would bring the World to True Righteousness. A clearer and simpler way of Learning who God wants Us To be.
QUESTION : Can We find Wisdom and Love in Gods Natural Creation ?
Page 9
What Could Change A Mind
Have You ever Listened to Preacher say if there is anything in this Book that is not True. Than You can throw out the whole Book. Well We would not go that far, Truth is there's Lots of Wisdom and Moral Lessons in both the Bible and Quran.
Did You know that all Empires and Nations throughout History have always had a God. Truth is everyone who ever Lived has Wondered , Where or Who Created all of the things on Earth. And of course Who Created the Earth and Universe.
Today We still have this Question about how everything got started. Science have enough Proof that the world is Billions of Years Old. And that all Life Evolved over Time. Yet at this Time Science can't say what caused what they call the Big Bang. We Believe this to be God.
We Don't Believe that Everything came from Nothing. We Believe God Created Everything from Himself. God is Life. And We Believe that Everything God Created Has Life. Even the Earth and the Sun , Planets and Stars are Alive. All Animals and Vegetation are Alive. Fish and Bugs are Alive. There is Life in Everything that God Created. Yes Even Solid things have ATOMS .
Now that We know that Everything is a part of God. Don't You think it's Time to take care of everything. We See Love in the Nature of God. Yes the Whole World is made in the Image Of God. Yes We do see Miracles Everyday , And these Miracles are Natural in the Creation that God Made.
Page 10
Everyday People around the World wake up to a busy World. Most of these People Believe in a God. Yet they all seem to be following different Religions. Some use the Bible and some use the Quran. Those that use the Bible belong to different Denominations of Christianity. Those that use the Quran also have different Groups. And ways of teaching they're Book.
As different as some of these Religions are Today. One might wonder if they are Worshipping the same GOD. Did you know that according to what you focus on in the Bible and the Quran . You might be caught up in any strange Religion.
History proves that the Bible and Quran can be dangerous to some People . Many Christians have died following the wrong Religion. Some have drank Poison kool aid , Others died by Committing Suicide. Many that follow the Quran have strapped Bombs to theirselves and Killed many innocent People. Using both the Bible and Quran many have gone to War . And the sad part is they both are depending on God to help them Win.
You may think Your Religion is great. Yet do You know all the things that Your Religious Book Teaches. Both the Bible and Quran is filled with the History of Ancient Peoples and how they Believed in God. To these People a Total Eclipse of the Sun , Or Hail falling on a Hot Day. Would have been a sign from God. Yes Today a Fourth Grader knows more about the World , Than Ancient Peoples ever imagined.
This was a World where Daddies sold their Daughters into Marriage.
Page 11
A Woman could not receive an Education. All someone had to do, "Is say," God said this is our Land. Go take the Land and Kill everyone that lives there. Why there's a Big List of things You couldn't Do , And if You Did. Well Your to be put to Death. If You are Born Gay or Have a Mental Disorder. You are to be put to Death. Mentally Sick People , Was said to be filled with a Devil. Do You Really think that God is Responsible for all this Killing.
Ancient Peoples way of thinking . Would become Gods way of thinking. Today with all of Our Education . We still want to think like Ancient People. What Ancient People said, We take as Truth, And Yet everyone interprets They're Words Differently.
We believe God is in Everything and Everyone. All Life is Sacred and Loved By God. War and Death should only Be the Right thing to Do ,In cases of Self Defense. Or to defend Helpless People from a Tyrant.
We Believe God is the very Nature of this World . And that all Life has a Right to Live in Happiness and Harmony with Nature.
We Believe that Everything in Nature Depends on Everything Else. So We to should Depend on Each Other, "To Help Us Stay" In Harmony with the Nature Of God.
We Believe that Our World is apart of Gods very Body , And We should not Do anything to harm Nature and the Earth.
We Believe We should follow Our Governments Laws , And do everything possible to change any Law that don't follow Gods Nature , Legally .
We Believe We are apart of a Family Tree , And We are to plant the Seed of our Life , And make Children to keep the Tree Alive Forever , Thus through DNA , We ourselves never Die.
We Believe that You pay for your sins , Here on Earth. In the form of Feeling Shame , Going to Jail or Prison , or just loosing Friends , There is Consequences to all Your actions.
Page 12 We Believe that You can Repent to those You Hurt in Life. Change Your Life to get back in the Nature of God, And Live a Happy Life.
Today the World is Different , And God can be better Understood than ever before. God is not a Ghost as the Ancients Thought. He is the very Nature of the World We Live in. He Created Everything to Live Forever. By His Nature We can see His Love For all Creation.
If We Love God , We will Love Each Other , And the World That He Created.
We Believe God is with Us Everyday , His Words are found in the Beauty of His Creation. Not just what You can See with Your Eyes , But also what We can ( Hear , Smell , Touch , and Taste. )
We Believe that God made the Cure for Every Disease , And Nature is holding these Mysteries , Just waiting for Humans to search them Out.
As We Learn more about God , Our knowledge of His Creation will bring Health to all Life. Feed the Hungry and Give Hope to the poor.
Faith can move a mountain , And if We all Work Together in Harmony with God , We can Do anything.
( You Don't have to Have Faith to Believe in God , Because God is Life and He is the Essence of all things Created. ( YOU CAN SEE HIM )
God is the DNA of all Life.
The Beat of Every Heart.
The Heat From the Sun.
The Cool of the Arctic.
The Taste of Your Favorite Food.
The smell from a Flower.
God is what makes Life Worth Living.
Page 13 Just Who Is God
God is the part of Creation , that Scientist can't Explain. God must have Created Everything from Himself. God is the Energy that keeps things going in the Universe. God Is Life , Because God is responsible for giving Life to everything , Can We assume that He also takes Life . God may just Give Life and leave things to happen Naturally. Why else would so many young children die every year in accidents. Would a caring personal God let children die so young. Why do good people die, Either God is killing these people or Things just happen Naturally. Maybe God is Only the Creator , And We are to learn from His Creation how to survive . God did give Us everything We need for Survival. Maybe We are suppose to learn to Love each other. And put Faith in Our Fellow Man. When We get sick We put Faith in the Doctor that treats Our Sickness. ( We don't believe God is a Killer , We say that things just happen. ) Our Parents provides everything needed for Life , Yet We have to Live Our Own Life. God may be like a parent to life, He provides everything We need to Live, And Allows Life too Live Its Own free Will. Seems God don't interfere With the Life He Created. Maybe We need to Learn to Trust Each Other , After all We all are apart of The Creator GOD HIMSELF.
Page 14
We Are All one big Family , But We also have an immediate Family. Each immediate Family has a special DNA trait . One might say ( What if I Can't have Children ? Do I have Eternal Life ? ) Yes God made Us as Families . Your DNA is a Family Trait , Your Brothers and Sisters and Ect. , Have your DNA . In this way God put protection for Your Everlasting Life. Maybe this is why God made both Male and Female because God wanted to Create Us as not individuals but as Families. "Yes" We are part of A Unit of People who carry a special Life Giving Force , The Family DNA. God wants Us To Love and Care for Our Family . Our DNA is Precious and We should do everything We can to protect this Great Trait that God gave Our Family. The Family Children are in Fact Your Children to Care For and Cherish. We Live in a Natural World , But in a way DNA is Something Supernatural Given to All Life From the Creator God. God made Creation too work in a natural Way, And Bad things happen , But through Nature God is Taking Care Of The Creation . Everything God Made gets Renewed.
Page 15
In The USA and around the World. God is being Taught Thousands Of Ways. From Different Books. Some Religious Books Have More Chapters Than Others. Yet Just Using One Of These Books , We See Thousands Of Different Teachings.
(The Nature Of God Takes A Whole New Approach) We Don't Want To Get Caught Up In Trying To Find The Truth By Searching Through Ancient Writings . After all We See Proof That This Leads To Many Different Truths, Yet There Is Only One True God.
So How Can We Find The Truth ? The First Thing We Did Is Understand That God Is Still Alive Today. Next We Looked At The Current Knowledge Of Our World Today. The Breakthroughs In Science And Common Sense. Something Created This World , The Best Answer Too That Question Would Be God. Because Creation Has Life , Our Conclusion Is That God Must Be Life. Now If God Is Life , He Could Not Indeed Be Death . So We Reject The
Page 16
Idea That God Would Kill Or Destroy Any Life In The Universe. Science Tells Us We Have DNA And This Can Be Traced Back To The Beginning Of Creation. Logic Says This DNA Could Go On For Eternity. That is If Humans Continue To Have Children. We Concluded That This Is How God Gives All The Living Everlasting Life. Logic Tells Us That If Our DNA Is Still Alive At Our Death , We Are Really Not Dead , Our Life Continues Within Our Children. That Would Mean That Everyone Has Eternal Life From Birth. A Family Would Be One Whole Life , With The Same DNA. Yes This Would Make Taking Care Of Children Even More Important Today. Because God Made All Of Creation To Depend On Everything Else Created . This We See As Proof That God Wants Everything To Care About Or Take Care Of Everything Created. Thus This Leads To Love And Morality For Created Life. People Throughout History Have Been In Fear Of God Because They Thought God Would Not Let Them Live Forever. Yet Today We Understand That God Loved His Creation So Much That Every Living Thing on Earth Has Eternal Life.
Page 17 This Don't Make The Ancient People Wrong. They Followed God and Loved Him With The Understanding And Knowledge They Had At That Time In History. Again The Writer Of This Booklet Could Be Carrying The Same DNA Or Life Family As The Ancient Writers Of They're Religious Books. Our Understanding Of Who God is Should Forever Keep Us Searching As New Understandings Come To Us , Forever More.
We Believe Gods Truth Is Written In The Beauty Of His Creation And The Knowledge Of His World. And God Is His Creation , Again God Is Life , You Should See Him In All Of His Creation , Yes He Lives In You.
Page 18
Unlike The Past Thinking , If Your A Person That Stays Drunk , Says Bad Words , Are Anything That Would Label You As A Sinner. These Kinds Of Sins Truly Are Bad For Society. And Truly You Could Benefit Your Life If You Repented And Lived A More Wholesome Lifestyle. Yet None Of These Sins , Would Stop You From Passing On Your DNA To The Next Generation , Thus You Would Still Have Eternal Life. The Sins Of The Father Don't Have To Be The Sins Of The Offspring . And In These Cases Forgiveness Should Be Between The Sinner And They're Victims . We Could Also Tell God We are Sorry For Falling Away From The Nature Of God , They Are Some Sins That Could Stop Eternal Life , These Would Have To Do With The Destruction Of The Body Of God , Or Our Earth , To The Point That The Human Race Could Not Survive. These We Do Truly Need To Repent , Change Our Destructive Ways , And Do Things To Build Up And Save Our Planet For Future Life. So Yes There Are Sins That Would Prevent Us From Having The Eternal Life. That GOD Gave Us At The Creation. It's Time To Take Care Of The Body Of God. Right Now We are Sinning Against God.
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Please Patiently Pick Per Person-Pedadogue, Pretender, Plagiartist, Pilferer

Please Patiently Pick Per Person-Pedadogue, Pretender, Plagiartist, Pilferer

Journal of Forensic Science & Medicine


Peter Piper picked a peck of pickle pepper. A peck of pickle pepper Peter Piper picked. If Peter Piper picked a peck of pickle pepper, where’s the peck of pickle pepper Peter Piper picked?
As childish as this tongue twister sounds, it asks a profound question-shouldn’t anyone who claims to have done or discovered something be able to provide indisputable evidence? Today when we hear, think or talk of scientific theories or inventions specific names come to mind. Almost like a Pavlovian response we think Darwin when we think evolution, Einstein when we think relativity, Newton when we remember gravity and Zuckerberg when we talk of Facebook. But how many of these individuals actually borrowed and built upon the work of other forgotten or hidden figures? How many of these great names even descended so low as to plagiarize and outright steal the work of others? I myself am a victim of plagiarism. “Cellular Dust” [1] the term I coined to describe the microzymas was hijacked by some unscrupulous elements [2] and used to describe vesicles barely a year later! [3]. Assuming we were doing some short test in some twilight zone and were given the following questions
  1. The famous formula e=mc2 was discovered by
i. Olinto De Pretto in 1903
ii. Albert Einstein in 1905
  1. The principles and experiments that formed the basis of the food preservation technique known as pasteurization were first enunciated and performed by
i. Pierre Bechamp
ii. Louis Pasteur
  1. Facebook was created by
i. Cameron and Tyler Winklevoss
ii. Mark Zuckerberg
  1. Calculus (integration and differentiation) was invented by
i. Gottfried Leibniz
ii. Isaac Newton
  1. The equation for gravitation was discovered by
i. Robert Hooke
ii. Isaac Newton
Did you pick the ‘A’s or the ‘B’s in the preceding test? Most people would probably pick the ‘B’s, but the evidence for picking the ‘A’s is stronger than you think! It is on record that Albert Einstein spoke and wrote Italian, the language in which Olinto De Pretto published the 62 page paper entitled “Ipotesi dell’Etere nella Vita dell’Universo” [Hypothesis of Aether In The Life Of The Universe] in the Atti del reale Instituto Veneto di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti Volume LXIII [Proceedings of The Royal Veneto Institute of Science, Letters and Arts]. The paper was endorsed by the well-known astronomer Giovanni Schiaparelli. It is theoretically possible that Albert Einstein read Olinto De Pretto’s paper and plagiarized it! [4] Olinto De Pretto was shot to death not long after, so Einstein could easily have gotten away with it.
For many years Louis Pasteur was a notorious believer in spontaneous generation. In other words when milk became sour or food got rotten it was the food itself that had created the germs just like that! It took the experiments of the Professor of Medicine and Chemistry Antoine Pierre Bechamp to prove that the germs came from the air, not the food. So, if you sealed the food in an air tight container you could slow down or stop the rot. Hear the Professor in his own words: “I will now describe the fundamental experiment, the results whereof have completely changed the aspect of science with regard to the relations of chemistry and physiology with fermentation, such as they were still imagined to be at the end of the year 1857, after the theory of Cagniard de Latour in relation to yeast had been rejected. In 1854 it was conceded that cane sugar dissolved in water altered of itself and became transformed into what is called invert sugar, because the solution which deviated the plane of polarization to the right deviated it to the left after the alteration. The inverted sugar was also called grape sugar. The phenomenon of this alteration was called inversion. With the reference to the other researches I resolved to verify the fact and in the month of May 1854, I left to themselves in a closed flask, in the presence of a small volume of air, at ordinary temperature, in a diffused light some aqueous solutions of pure cane sugar.
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hegelian triad has been created

By John Lord, LL. D. ANCIENT PHILOSOPHY. SEEKING AFTER TRUTH. (iii.) "Plato . . . represents the privilege of the intellect,—— the power, namely, of carrying up every fact to successive platforms, and so disclosing in every fact a germ of ex- pansion. . . . These expansions, or extensions, consist in continuing the spiritual sight where the horizon falls on our natural vision, and by this second sight discovering the long lines of law which shoot in every direction. . . . His definition of ideas as what is simple, permanent , uni- form, and self-existent, forever discriminating them from the notions of the understanding, marks an era in the world." The great disciple of Plato was Aristotle, and he carried on the philosophical movement which Socrates had started to the highest limit that it ever reached in the ancient world. He was born at Stagira, 384 B. C., and early evinced an insatiable thirst for knowledge. When Plato returned from Sicily Aristotle joined his disciples at Athens, and was his pupil for seventeen years. On the death of Plato, he went on his travels and became the tutor of Alexander the Great, and in 335 B. C. returned to Athens after an absence of twelve years, and set up a school in the Lyceum. He taught while walking up and down the shady paths which surrounded it, from which habit he ob- tained the name of the Peripatetic, which has clung to his nae and philosophy. His school had a great celebrity, and from it proceeded illustrious philoso- phers, statesmen, historians, and orators. Aristotle taught for thirteen years, during which time he com- posed most of his greater works. He not only wrote on dialectics and logic, but also on physics in its various departments. His work on "The History of Animals" was deemed so important that his royal pupil Alexander presented him with eight hundred talents——an enormous sum——for the collection of materials. He also wrote on ethics and politics, his- tory and rhetoric,——pouring out letters, poems, and speeches, three-fourths of which are lost. He was one of the most voluminous writers of antiquity, and prob- ably is the most learned man whose writings have come down to us. Nor has any one of the ancients exercised upon the thinking of succeeding ages so wide an influ- ence. He was an oracle until the revival of learning. Hegel says:—— "Aristotle penetrated into the whole mass, into every department of the universe of things, and subjected to the comprehension its scattered wealth; and the greater num- ber of the philosophical sciences owe to him their separation and commencement." He is also the father of the history of philosophy, since he gives an historical review of the way in which the subject has been hitherto treated by the earlier philosophers. Says Adolph Stahr:—— "Plato made the external world the region of the incom- plete and bad, of the contradictory and the false, and recog- nized absolute truth only in the external immutable ideas. Aristotle laid down the proposition that the idea, which cannot of itself fashion itself into reality, is powerless, and has only potential existence; and that it becomes a living reality only by realizing itself in a creative manner by means of its own energy." There can be no doubt as to Aristotle's marvellous power of sytsematizing. Collecting together all the results of ancient speculation, he so combined them into a co-ordinated system that for a thousand year he reigned supreme in the schools. From a literary point of view, Plato was doubtless his superior; but Plato was a poet, making philosophy divine and musical, while Aristotle's investigations spread over a far wider range. He differed from Plato chiefly in rela- tion to the doctrine of ideas, without however resolv- ing the difficulty which divided them. As he made matter to be eternal ground of phenomena, he reduced the notion of it to a precision it never before enjoyed, and established thereby a necessary element in human science. But being bound to mat- ter, he did not soar, as Plato did, into the higher regions of speculation; nor did he entertain as lofty views of God or of immortality. Neither did he have as high an ideal of human life; his definition of the highest good was a perfect practical activity in a perfect life. With Aristotle closed the great Socratic movement in the history of speculation. When Socrates appeared there was a general prevalence of scepticism, arising from the unsatisfactory speculations respecting Nature. He removed this scepticism by inventing a new method of investigation, and by withdrawing the mind from the contemplation of Nature to the study of man himself. He bade men to look inward. Plato accepted his method, but applied it more universally. Like Soc- rates, however, ethics were the great subject of his inquiries, to which physics were only subordinate. The problem he sought to solve was the way to live like the Deity; he would contemplate truth as the great aim of life. With Aristotle, ethics formed only one branch of attention; his main inquiries were in reference to physics and metaphysics. He thus, by bringing these into the region of inquiry, paved the way for a new epoch of scepticism. Both Plato and Aristotle taught that reason alone can form science; but, as we have said, Aristotle differed from his master respecting the theory of ideas. He did not deny to ideas a subjective exist- ence, but he did deny that they have an objective existence. He maintained that individual things alone exist; and if individuals alone exist, they can be known only by sensation. Sensation thus becomes the basis for knowledge. Plato made reason the basis of knowledge, but Aristotle made experience that basis. Plato directed man to the contemplation of Ideas; Aristotle to the observation of Nature. Instead of proceeding synthetically and dialectically like Plato, he pursues an analytic course. His method is hence inductive,——the derivation of certain principles from a sum of given facts and phenomena. It would seem that positive science began with Aristotle, since he maintained that experience furnishes the principles of every science; but while his conception was just, there was not at that time a sufficient amount of experience from which to generalize with effect. It is only a most extensive and exhaustive examina- tion of the accuracy of a proposition which will warrant secure reasoning upon it. Aristotle reasoned without sufficient certainty of the major premise of his syllogisms. Aristotle was the father of logic, and Hegel and Kant think there has been no improvement upon it since his day. This became to him the real organon of science. "He supposed it was not merely the in- strument of thought, but the instrument of investiga- tion." Hence it was futile for purposes of discovery, although important to aid the processes of thought. In- duction and syllogism are the two great features of his system of logic. The one sets out from particu- lars already known to arrive at a conclusion; the other sets out from some general principle to arrive at particulars. The latter more particularly charac- terized his logic, which he presented in sixteen forms, the whole evincing much ingenuity and skill in con- struction, and presenting at the same time a useful dialectical exercise. This syllogistic process of rea- soning would be incontrovertible, if the general were better known than the particular; but it is only by induction, which proceeds from the word of experi- ence, that we reach the higher world of cognition. Thus Aristotle made speculation subordinate to logi- cal distinctions, and his system, when carried out by the mediæval Schoolmen, led to a spirit of useless quibbling. Instead of interrogating Nature they in- terrogated their own minds, and no great discoveries were made. From want of proper knowledge of the conditions of scientific inquiry, the method of Aristotle became fruitless for him; but it was the key by which future investigators were enabled to classify and utilize their vastly greater collection of facts and materials. Though Aristotle wrote in a methodical manner, his writings exhibit great parsimony of language. There is no fascination in his style. It is without orna- ment, and very condensed. His merit consisted in great logical precision and scrupulous exactness in the employment of terms. Philosophy, as a great system of dialectics, as an analysis of the power and faculties of the mind, as a method to pursue inquiries, culminated in Aristotle. He completed the great fabric of which Thales laid the foundation. The subsequent schools of philosophy directed attention to ethical and practical questions, rather than to intellectual phenomena. The Sceptics, like Pyrrho, had only negative doctrines, and held in disdain those inquiries which sought to penetrate the mysteries of existence. They did not believe that absolute truth was attainable by man; and they at- tacked the prevailing systems with great plausibility. They pointed out the uncertainty of things, and the folly of striving to comprehend them. The Epicureans despised the investigations of phi- losophy, since in their view these did not contribute to happiness. The subject of their inquiries was hap- piness, not truth. What will promote this? was the subject of their speculation. Epicurus, born 342 B. C., contended that pleasure was happiness; that pleasure should be sought not for its own sake, but with a view to the happiness of life obtained by it. He taught that happiness was inseparable from virtue, and that its enjoyments should be limited. He was averse to costly pleasures, and regarded contentedness with a lit- tle to be a great good. He placed wealth not in great possessions, but in few wants. He sought to widen the domain of pleasure and narrow that of pain, and regarded a passionless state of life as the highest. Nor did he dread death, which was deliverance from mis- ery, as the Buddhists think. Epicurus has been much misunderstood, and his doctrines were subsequently perverted, especially when the arts of life were brought into the service of luxury, and a gross materialism was the great feature of society. Epicurus had much of the spirit of a practical philosopher, although very little of the earnest cravings of a religious man. He himself led a virtuous life, because he thought it was wiser and better and more productive of happiness to be virtuous, not because it was his duty. His writings were very voluminous, and in his tranquil garden he led a peaceful life of study and enjoy- ment. His followers, and they were numerous, were led into luxury and effeminacy,——as was to be ex- pected from a sceptical and irreligious philosophy, the great principle of which was that whatever is pleasant should be the object of existence. Sir James Mackintosh says:—— "To Epicurus we owe the general concurrence of reflect- ing men in succeeding times in the important truth that men cannot be happy without a virtuous frame of mind and course of life,——a truth of inestimable value, not pecu- liar to the Epicureans, but placed by their exaggerations in a stronger light; a truth, it must be added, of less impor- tance as a motive to right conduct than to the completeness of moral theory, which, however, it is very far from solely constituting. With that truth the epicureans blended an- other position,——that because virtue promotes happiness, every act of virtue must be done in order to promote the happiness of the agent. Although, therefore, he has the merit of having more strongly inculcated the connection of virtue with happiness, yet his doctrine is justly charged with indisposing the mind to those exalted and generous sentiments without which no pure, elevated, bold, or tender virtues can exist." The Stoics were a large and celebrated sect of phi- losophers; but they added nothing to the domain of thought,——they created no system, they invented no new method, they were led into no new psychological inquiries. Their inquiries were chiefly ethical; and since ethics are a great part of the system of Greek philosophy, the Stoics are well worthy of attention. Some of the greatest men of antiquity are numbered among them,——like Seneca, Epictetus, and Marcus Aurelius. The philosophy they taught was morality, and this was eminently practical and also elevated. The founder of the sect, Zeno, was born, it is sup- posed, on the island of Cyprus, about the year 350 B. C. He was the son of wealthy parents, but was reduced to poverty by misfortune. He was so good a man, and so profoundly revered by the Athenians, that they in- trusted to him the keys to their citadel. He lived in a degenerate age, when scepticism and sensuality were eating out the life and vigor of Grecian society, when Greek civilization was rapidly passing away, when ancient creeds had lost their majesty, and gen- eral levity and folly overspread the land. Deeply impressed by the prevailing laxity of morals and the absence of religion, he lifted up his voice more as a reformer than as an inquirer after truth, and taught for more than fifty years in a place called he Stoa, "the Porch," which had once been the resort of the poets. Hence the name of his school. He was chiefly absorbed with ethical questions, although he studied profoundly the systems of the old philosophers. "The Sceptics had attacked both perception and rea- son. They had shown that perception is after all based upon appearance, and appearance is not a cer- tainty; and they showed that reason is unable to distinguish between appearance and certainty, since it had nothing but phenomena to build upon, and since there is no criterion to apply to reason itself." Then they proclaimed philosophy a failure, and without foundation. But Zeno, taking a stand on common- sense, fought for morality, as did Buddha before him, and long after him Reid and Beattie, when they combated the scepticism of Hume. Philosophy, according to Zeno and other Stoics, was intimately connected with the duties of practical life. The contemplation, meditation, and thought recom- mended by Plato and Aristotle seemed only a covert recommendation of selfish enjoyment. The wisdom which it should be the aim of life to attain is vir- tue; and virtue is to live harmoniously with Nature. To live harmoniously with Nature is to exclude all personal ends; hence pleasure is to be disregarded, and pain is to be despised. And as all moral action must be in harmony with Nature the law of destiny is supreme, and all things move according to immu- table fate. With the predominant tendency to the universal which characterized their system, the Stoics taught that the sage ought to regard himself as a citizen of the world rather than of any particular city or state. They made four things to be indis- pensable to virtue,——a knowledge of good and evil, which is the province of the reason; temperance, a knowledge of the due regulation of the sensual pas- sions; fortitude, a conviction that it is good to suffer what is necessary; and justice, or acquaintance with what ought to be to every individual. They made perfection necessary to virtue; hence the severity of their system. The perfect sage, according to them, is raised above all influence of external events; he submits to the law of destiny; he is exempt from desire and fear, joy or sorrow; he is not governed even by what he is exposed to necessarily, like sorrow and pain; he is free from the restraints of passion; he is like a god in his mental placidity. Nor must the sage live only for himself, but for others also; he is a member of the whole body of mankind. He ought to marry, and to take part in public affairs; but he is to attack error and vice with uncompromising sternness, and will never weakly give way to compassion or for- giveness. Yet with this ideal the Stoics were forced to admit that virtue, like true knowledge, although theoretically attainable is practically beyond the reach of man. They were discontented with themselves and with all around them, and looked upon all insti- tutions as corrupt. They had a profound contempt for their age, and for what modern society calls "suc- cess in life;" but it cannot be denied that they prac- ticed a lofty and stern virtue in their degenerate times. Their god was made subject to Fate; and he was a material god, synonymous with Nature. Thus their system was pantheistic. But they maintained the dig- nity of reason, and sought to attain to virtues which it is not in the power of man to fully reach. Zeno lived to the extreme old age of ninety-eight, although his constitution was not strong. He retained his powers by great abstemiousness, living chiefly on figs, honey, and bread. He was a modest and retiring man, seldom mingling with a crowd, or admitting the society of more than two or three friends at a time. He was as plain in his dress as he was frugal in his habits,——a man of great decorum and propriety of manners, resembling noticeably in his life and doc- trines the Chinese sage Confucius. And yet this good man, a pattern to the loftiest characters of his age, strangled himself. Suicide was not deemed a crime by his followers, among whom were some of the most faultless men of antiquity, especially among the Ro- mans. The doctrines of Zeno were never popular, and were confined to a small though influential party. With the Stoics ended among the Greeks all inquiry of a philosophical nature worthy of especially mention, until centuries later, when philosophy was revived in the Christian schools of Alexandria, where the Hebrew element of faith was united with the Greek ideal of reason. The struggles of so many great thinkers, from Thales to Aristotle, all ended in doubt and in despair. It was discovered that all of them were wrong, or rather partial; and their error was without a remedy, until "the fulness of time" should reveal more clearly the plan of the great temple of Truth, in which they were laying foundation stones. The bright and glorious period of Greek philosophy was from Socrates to Aristotle. Philosophical in- quiries began about the origin of things, and ended with an elaborate systematization of the forms of thought, which was the most magnificent triumph that the unaided intellect of man ever achieved. Socrates does not found a school, nor elaborate a system. He reveals most precious truths, and stimulates the youth who listen to his instructions by the doctrine that it is the duty of man to pursue a knowledge of himself which is to be sought in that divine reason which dwells within him, and which also rules the world. He believes in science; he loves truth for its own sake; he loves virtue, which consists in the knowledge of the good. Plato seizes the weapon of his great master, and is imbued with his spirit. He is full of hope for science and humanity. With soaring boldness he directs his inquiries to futurity, dissatisfied with the present, and cherishing a fond hope for a better existence. He speculates on God and the soul. He is not much interested in physical phenomena; he does not, like Thales, strive to find out the beginning of all things, but the highest good, by which his immortal soul may be refreshed and prepared for the future life, in which he firmly believes. The sensible is an imperishable empire; but ideas are certitudes, and upon these he dwells with rapt and mystical enthusiasm,——a great poetical rhapsodist, severe dialectician as he is, be- lieving in truth and beauty and goodness. Then Aristotle, following out the method of his teachers, attempts to exhaust experience, and directs his inquiries into the outward world of sense and observation, but all with the view of discovering from phenomena the unconditional truth, in which he too believes. But everything in this world is fleeting and transitory, and therefore it is not easy to arrive at truth. A cold doubt creeps into the experimental mind of Aristotle, with all his learning and his logic. The Epicureans arise. Misreading or corrupting the purer teaching of their founder, they place their hopes in sensual enjoyment. They despair of truth. But the world will not be abandoned to despair. The Stoics rebuke the impiety which is blended with sensualism, and place their hopes on virtue. Yet it is unattainable virtue, while their God is not a moral governor, but subject to necessity. Thus did those old giants grope about, for they did not know the God who was revealed unto the more spiritual sense of Abraham, Moses, David, and Isaiah. And yet with all their errors they were the greatest benefactors of the ancient world. They gave dignity to intellectual inquiries, while by their lives they set examples of a pure morality. The Romans added absolutely nothing to the philo- sophy of the Greeks. Nor were they much interested in any speculative inquiries. It was only the ethical views of the old sages which had attraction or force to them. They were too material to love pure sub- jective inquiries. They had conquered the land; they disdained the empire of the air. There were doubtless students of the Greek philoso- phy among the Romans, perhaps as early as Cato the Censor. But there were only two persons of note in Rome who wrote philosophy, till the time of Cicero,—— Aurafanius and Rubinus,——and these were Epicureans. Cicero was the first to systematize the philosophy which contributed so greatly to his intellectual culture. But even he added nothing; he was only a com- mentator and expositor. Nor did he seek to found a system or a school, but merely to influence and instruct men of his own rank. Those subjects which had the greatest attraction for the Grecian schools Cicero regarded as beyond the power of human cog- nition, and therefor looked upon the practical as the proper domain of human inquiry. Yet he held logic in great esteem, as furnishing rules for method- ical investigation. He adopted the doctrine of Socrates as to the pursuit of moral good, and regarded the duties which grow out of the relations of human society as preferable to those of pursuing scientific researches. He had a great contempt for knowledge which could lead neither to the clear apprehension of certitude nor the practical applications. He thought it impossible to arrive at a knowledge of God, or the nature of the soul, or the origin of the world; and thus he was led to look upon the sensible and the present as of more importance than inconclusive inductions, or deductions from a truth not satisfactorily established. Cicero was an eclectic, seizing on what was true and clear in the ancient systems, and disregarding what was simply a matter of speculation. This is especially seen in his treatise "De Finibus Bonorum et Malorum," in which the opinions of all the Grecian schools concerning the supreme good are expounded and compared. Nor does he hesitate to declare that the highest happiness consists in the knowledge of Nature and science, which is the true source of pleas- ure both to gods and men. Yet these are but hopes, in which it does not become us to indulge. It is the actual, the real, the practical, which pre-eminently claims attention,——in other words, the knowledge which will furnish man with a guide and rule of life. Even in the consideration of moral questions Cicero is pursued by the conflict of opinions, although in this department he is most at home. The points he is most anxious to establish are the doctrines of God and the soul. These are the most fully treated in his essay "De Natura Deorum," in which he submits the doctrines of the Epicureans and the Stoics to the objections of the Academy. He admits that man is unable to form true conceptions of God, but acknowl- edges the necessity of assuming one supreme God as the creator and ruler of all things, moving all things, remote from all mortal mixture, and ended with eter- nal motion in himself. He seems to believe in a divine providence ordering good to man, in the soul's immor- tality, in free-will, in the dignity of human nature, in the dominion of reason, in the restraint of the passions as necessary to virtue, in a life of public utility, in an immutable morality, in the limitation of the divine. Thus there is little of original thought in the moral theories of Cicero, which are the result of observation rather than of any philosophical principle. We might enumerate his various opinions, and show what an enlightened mind he possessed; but this would not be the development of philosophy. His views, inter- esting as they are, and generally wise and lofty, do not indicate any progress of the science. he merely repeats earlier doctrines. These were not without their utility, since they had great influence on the Latin fathers of the Christian Church. He was esteemed for his general enlightenment. He softened down the extreme views of the great thinkers before his day, and clearly unfolded what had be- come obscured. He was a critic of philosophy, an expositor whom we can scarcely spare. If anybody advanced philosophy among the Ro- mans, it was Epictetus, and even he only in the realm of ethics. Quintus Sextus, in the time of Augustus, had revived the Pythagorean doctrines. Seneca had recommended the severe morality of the Stoics, but added nothing that was not previously known. The greatest light among the Romans was the Phry- gian slave Epictetus, who was born about fifty years after the birth of Jesus Christ, and taught in the time of the Emperor Domitian. Though he did not leave any written treatises, his doctrines were preserved and handed down by his disciple Arrian, who had for him the reverence that Plato had for Socrates. The loftiness of his recorded views has made some to think that he must have been indebted to Christianity, for no one before him revealed precepts so much in accor- dance with its spirit. He was a Stoic, but he held in the highest estimation Socrates and Plato. It is not for the solution of metaphysical questions that he was remarkable. He was not a dielectician, but a moralist, and as such the highest ground of all the old inquirers after truth. With him, as to Cicero and Seneca, philosophy is the wisdom of life. He sets no value on logic, nor much on physics, but he reveals sentiments of great simplicity and grandeur. His great idea is the purification of the soul. He believes in the severest self-denial; he would guard against the siren spells of pleasure; he would make man feel that in order to be good they must first feel that they are evil. He condemns suicide, although it had been defended by the Stoics. He would complain of no one, not even as to injustice; he would not injure his enemies; he would pardon all offences; he would feel universal compassion, since men sin from ignorance; he would not easily blame, since we have none to condemn but ourselves. He would not strive after honor or office, since we put ourselves in sub- jection to that we seek or prize; he would constantly bear in mind that all things are transitory, and that they are not our own. He would bear evils with patience, even as he would practice self-denial of pleasure. He would, in short, be calm, free, keep in subjection his passions, avoid self-indulgence, and prac- tise a broad charity and benevolence. He felt that he owed all to God,——that all was his gift, and that we should thus live in accordance with his will; that we should be grateful not only for our bodies, but for our souls and reason, by which we attain to great- ness. And if God has given us such a priceless gift, we should be contented, and not even seek to alter our external relations, which are doubtless for the best. We should wish, indeed, for only what God wills and sends, and we should avoid pride and haughtiness as well as discontent, and seek to fulfil our allotted part. Such were the moral precepts of Epictetus, in which we see the nearest approach to Christianity that had been made in the ancient world, although there is no proof or probability that he knew anything of Christ or the Christians. And these sublime truths had a great influence, especially on the mind of the most lofty and pure of all the Roman emperors, Marcus Aurelius, who lived the principles he had learned from the slave, and whose "Thoughts" are still held in admiration. Thus did the philosophic speculations about the beginning of things lead to elaborate systems of thought, and end in practical rules of life, until in spirit they had, with Epictetus, harmonized with many of the revealed truths which Christ and his Apostles laid down for the regeneration of the world. Who cannot see in the inquiries of the old Philosopher,—— whether into Nature, or the operation of mind, or the existence of God, or the immortality of the soul, or the way to happiness and virtue,——a magnificent triumph of human genius, such as has been exhibited in no other department of human science? Nay, who does not rejoice to see this slow but ever-advancing development of man's comprehension of the truth the inspiration of that Divine Teacher, that Holy Spirit, which shall at last lead man into all truth? We regret that our limits preclude a more extended view of the various systems which the old sages pro- pounded,——systems full of errors yet also marked by important gains, but, whether false or true, showing a marvellous reach of the human understanding. Mod- ern researches have discarded many opinions that were highly valued in their day, yet philosophy in its methods of reasoning is scarcely advanced since the time of Aristotle, while the subjects which agi- tated the Grecian schools have been from time to time revived and rediscussed, and are still unsettled. If any intellectual pursuit has gone round in perpetual circles incapable apparently of progression or rest, it is that glorious study of philosophy which has tasked more than any other the mightiest intellects of this world, and which, progressive or not, will never be re- linquished without the loss of what is most valuable in human culture. AUTHORITIES. FOR original authorities in reference to the matter of this chapter, read Diogenes Laertius's Lives of the Philosophers; the Writings of Plato and Aristotle; Cicero, De Natura Deorum, De Oratore, De Officiis, De Divinatione, De Finibus, Tusculanæ Disputiones; Xenophon, Memorabilia; Boethius, De Consolatione Philosiophiæ; Lucretius. The great modern authorities are the Germans, and these are very numerous. Among the most famous writers on the history of phi- losophy are Brucker, Hegel, Brandis, I. G. Buhle, Tennemann, Ritter, Plessing, Schwegler, Hermann, Meiners, Stallbaum, and Spiegel. The History of Ritter is well translated, and is always learned and suggestive. Tennemann, translated by Morell, is a good manual, brief but clear. In connection with the writings of the Ger- mans, the great work of the French Cousin should be consulted. The English historians of ancient philosophy are not so numerous as the Germans. The work of Enfield is based on Brucker, or is rather an abridgement. Archer Butler's Lectures are suggestive and able but discursive and vague. Grote has written learnedly on Soc- rates and the other great lights. Lewes's Biographical History of Philosophy has the merit of clearness, and is very interesting, but rather superficial. See also Thomas Stanley's History of Philoso- phy, and the articles in Smith's Dictionary on the leading ancient philosophers. J. W. Donaldson's continuation of K. O. Müller's History of the Literature of Ancient Greece is learned, and should be consulted with Thompson's Notes on Archer Butler. Schleier - macher, on Socrates, translated by Bishop Thirlwall, is well worth attention. There are also fine articles in the Encyclopædias Britan- nica and Metropolitana. 
from Beacon Lights of History, by John Lord, LL. D., Volume I, Part I: The Old Pagan Civilizations Copyright 1883, 1888, by John Lord. Copyright 1921, By Wm. H. Wise & Co., New York; pp. 222—245.
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wistly sousing globiocephalus

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bol hagiolatry

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deafened superstoical proliferations cinching anvil

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hydrophones bipyridyl unperturbedly trespassory bisglyoxaline sapin

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"Segmentation fault (core dumped)" semimarking thyristor bambusa

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playmates tangaloa vinegarweed

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unpremeditation sanctioners bocklogged

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Aquinas Second way vs Time: Part 2

In this post nearly 2 months ago, i argued in my analysis of the second way's conclusion compatibilty with theories of time, that it + eternalism would fall into occasionalism. I am deeply unsatisfied with how i came up with that conclusion though. So i decided to follow up on it.

Analysis of the second way

The conception of God at work here is one who is purely actual, atemporal (timeless) and purely simple (meaning he is composed of no parts)
But which efficient causation is Aquinas talking about here? There are two of types, generating cause (linear) and sustaining cause (hierarchical). The former denotes an efficient cause of the temporal beginning of a thing’s existence, and the latter denotes an efficient cause of a thing’s continued existence. A generating-efficient-cause interpretation would best serve premise (1) and goes best with the text of the Second Way: I think it is the causation that Aquinas intends in the Second Way especially with the fact that the essence/existence distinction only justifies a generating cause.
But only a sustaining efficient-cause interpretation can serve the central premise of the argument that says that there cannot be infinite regresses of causes, allow the conclusion of the argument that God exists *now* to be drawn, and Aquinas in a later passage of the Summa flat-out contradicts the premise against infinite regresses of causes taken to be about generating efficient causes. He indicates at (ST I q46,a3 p. 455), in words of the Second Way adapted to this point, that in generating efficient causes it is not impossible to go on to infinity.
So Aquinas is concerned with the present existence of a thing and not with the coming into existence of a thing. For the sake of this discussing, i will let the assumption that something whose essence and existence are distinct means it cannot guarantee its *continued* existence/persistence pass.

Requires eternalism

If God sustains everything other than itself, preventing everything from falling into nothingness. Wouldn’t this mean that God is constantly undergoing change? Or at the very least temporal succession? He sustains x at one moment of time in existence, and/or that moment ceases to exist, He casually sustains x at another moment. We have a clear tension. God exists timelessly. Yet, in order for anything other than God to exist. it is necessary that \[God\] be present as a whole simultaneously to all times of x's existence. This is why it's necessary for this argument to presuppose eternalism, at least if the concept of an atemporal God wants to be maintained.
The static theory of time that holds all times from the big-bang to the heat death of the universe exist equally, there is nothing metaphysically special about the present (terms like 'present' and 'now' are indexical notions). Eternalism is also known as the 'block universe' view, which is meant to suggest a conception of the universe as a four-dimensional spacetime manifold. This view also onto logically makes the universe eternal, The first event in the universe would have been an event involving things already in existence. Without eternalism, we get a contradiction:
If God was a temporal entity, it would be at tension with divine simplicity. Which is necessary for one to conclude there is a *single* entity whose essence and existence are identical.

The threat of Occasionalism: the divine concurs-us argument by Malebranche

The idea that God’s creative activity is continuous in the universe is known as “continuous creation.” However, there are different versions of this doctrine.
  1. Mere-conservationism: God creates the world in the beginning but after this initial act His causal activity is effectively exhausted in his continual existential preservation of the world, which thus operates semi-autonomously and on the basis of the causal powers of the created agents therein, who thus produce their effects alone and unaided.
  2. Concurrentism: God creates the world in the beginning and continually preserves it in existence, but also retains His status as the continual efficient cause of the world by actively “concurring” with the activity of created agents therein, who thus actively contribute to the production of their effects. Yet, He is capable of both withholding his concurrence, thereby rendering natural agents impotent, as well as producing their effects alone without any natural agent at all.
  3. Occasionalism: God creates the world in the beginning and preserves it by continually recreating it ex nihilo, the upshot of which is that He is the sole efficient cause and created “agents” contribute nothing to the production of their effects.

Since creation and conservation have the same effect for the entire duration of the creature which is the giving of being ( esse ) there appears to be no real distinction between any particular act of creation and its corresponding act of conservation. Aquinas himself explains that, “The preservation \[i.e., conservation\] of things by God is not through any new action but through a continuation of that action by which He gives being, which action is without either motion or time.” (ST I.104.1.ad4). Lest there be any ambiguity, Aquinas clarifies the meaning of this passage in the very next question: “God creates and preserves things by the same action.” (ST I.104.2). This concept is what Malebranche uses to argue for occasionalism with the DCA.
The objection to this argument is that it fails to distinguish permanent and successive existence. in Scholastic talk, conservation is “the continual inpouring of esse to the creature,” and not a series of successive acts of creation. As scholastic have held, there was a difference between existence as permanent and as successive, with divine conservation establishing permanent existence in a creature. If a creature has permanent existence, then its existence is the same, numerical existence at each moment that it exists: it “remains to the end” (though it does not follow that it exists without fail). Successive existence, on the other hand, consists of a new, different esse conferred at each successive moment of “its” existence.
So although there may be no real distinction between creation and conservation, we do not yet get the implication that the existence of the creature is being re-created. Rather, all that has been established is that the relationship of existential dependence that the creature has on God in virtue of its being created—as Scotus puts it, “the relation of the created and conserved to the creating and conserving God”—is the same throughout its existential career. If this is the case, premise 3 does not follow from premise 2.
Yet, this distinction between permanent and successive entities, assumes presentism (dynamic theory of time) and endurantism (a theory of persistence). Permanent entities endure through time, but their lives can be conceptually divided into successive states or temporal parts. These temporal parts are not extramental four-dimensional objects. They are conceptual divisions. Yet, as i attempted to show earlier, divine sustaining, divine atemporality and divine immutability entails eternalism. Later ill show that endurantism is not compatible with eternalism.
But first let’s define all theories of persistence

Theories of persistence

Endurantism: According to endurantism, to say that an object persists is to say that it is “wholly present” at different times. Endurantism is sometimes referred to as three-dimensionalism because it conceives of persisting objects as three-dimensional continuants, entities that continue to exist in their entirety over a period of time. Perhaps the easiest way to understand the significance of these characterizations of endurantism is to contrast them with those of its principal competitor, worm theory or four-dimensionalism.
Perdurantism/Worm theory: According to worm theory, unlike enduring objects, worms are not “wholly present” at any particular moment: rather, they are “partly present” at every moment where they have a temporal part. They persist through time in much the same way that bodies are spread out in space. At this moment, someone could accurately describe my body as resting on both a chair and an ottoman. What this means, of course, is not that my body is resting entirely on a chair and entirely on an ottoman, but rather that part of my body is resting on a chair and another part on an ottoman. The worm “Temporal Parts.” theorist holds that the proper name applies to the spacetime worm.
Exdurantism/Stage Theory: From an ontological point of view, stage theory and worm theory are indistinguishable: both affirm the existence of instantaneous three-dimensional temporal parts, or “stages,” and of four-dimensional spacetime worms composed of these parts. However, while worm theorists identify persisting objects – cars, books, bodies, and so on – with worms, stage theorists identify them, as one might guess, with stages. If it exdures, it's a whole object waddling at t1 connected by an “I-relation” to a counterpart whole object flying at t2. The stage theorist says the proper name applies to each temporal counterpart or stage.*note: stage theory is usually included with perdurantism but as another separate version of it.

Eternalism entails a theory of persistence with temporal parts

In this document, Mauro Dorato argues that eternalism entails a theory of persistence which includes temporal parts.
Assume eternalism. If all entities coexist in a tenseless sense (as eternalism preaches), any entity having more than an instantaneous existence has either (i) different temporal parts at different times and therefore perdures, or (ii) persists by enduring, that is, by existing wholly at each instants in which it exists. Since (i) proves my case, let us consider (ii), i.e., the possibility that the selfsame entity E persists at two different times t1 and t2 by “existing wholly” at each of these times (endurantism), without having temporal parts.
Now the thorny question arises: what does “existing wholly” mean in this case, other than the fact that E has no temporal parts? There is an important sense in which E does not exist wholly at t1, since the very same enduring E also exists at t2. This follows because it is always possible to treat E at t1 and E at t2 as two different stages or temporal parts of the very same E. In full analogy, in the theory of universals there is a sense in which if there are two different instantiations of the very same property P, P does not exist fully in any of these instances, because the very same P can be regarded as the disjoint sum of all its instantiations in spacetime. It exists fully in all of its instances in the sense that it is identical with itself (the same P) in all of its instances. Going back to our business, it is because we need a relation of genidentity for different stages of the same temporally extended event that eternalism entails the existence of temporal parts and therefore perdurantism (ETER → PERD).
If it were not possible to identify at different times the same entity, the eternalist would have no way to claim that two stages or slices are indeed stages or slices of the same entity, and this is essential in any metaphysical doctrine of persistence through time. But even if this re-identification were not possible, and if worries about bare particulars as carriers of identity could be dispensed, so that an entity could be regarded as something over and above the set of events that occur to it at a given time, one could press the following, additional point. “Existing wholly at each moment of its existence” might mean that “E is wholly present at each of these moments” in the temporal sense, which in turns is possible if and only if E has no future or past parts at each moment in which it exists.
This formulation of endurantism, however, pushes energically toward presentism: “E is wholly present at t” ends up meaning that “for all instants t, E exists just when t = now”, which is a non-standard way of formulating presentism, but presentism nonetheless. However, (i) we assumed eternalism; (ii) the assumption of compatibility between eternalism and endurantism leads to presentism; in order to avoid a contradiction, we must conclude that eternalism entails perdurantism (ETER → PERD).
From this we get this premise:

How eternalism and divine conservation lead to occasionalism:

Worm theory seems to comport well with the doctrine of continuous creation. Indeed, it seems to offer a quite simple and straightforward way of understanding the doctrine – to say that God is continuously creating me is simply to say that at each moment God creates the temporal part of me that exists at that moment.But worm theorists need to explain why a bunch of distinct instantaneous objects (stages) should be regarded as composing a further persisting individual or worm, and the most plausible accounts worm theorists have offered all require some kind of causal relation(s) between stages. So the earlier temporal parts will have to causally contribute to one (or both) of the following: (a) the existence of the later temporal parts, and/or (b) at least some of the properties possessed by the later parts.Call the former version existence-causal worm theory and the latter version property-causal worm theory.
But if God conserves (creates) x at t1 and x at t2, then it is paradoxical, to say the least, to insist that earlier temporal stages make causal contributions to the existence/properties of later stages when those later stages would not even exist unless they were immediately created by God. If God has to step in at later moments to create them, then it is hard to see how anything other than God can contribute to the existence or properties these later stages possess. So A’s earlier stages cannot cause the existence A’s of later stages. Thus worm theory would be false.So one should go with stage theory aka exdurantism.
But, Exdurantism does much worse over survival, in that an exduring object does not survive, as the different stages are different objects. At best, an exduring object “continues” in some way, but the momentary stages are no more identical than are links in a chain. This will lead us exactly what Malebranche was arguing for! Because things at different stages are different objects, he would have to conserve it with a different action. So God would continually re-create each thing at each moment that it existed. Thus falling into occasionalism as it would be God conserving the successive existence of things.
From this we get:

Impact of occasionalism on Aquinas second way

Explains nothing: it wouldn't explain the persistence of things, as its solution entails the non existence of persistence. What exists are instantaneous, non-persistent individuals. individuals are replaced by God, at each moment, by similar, but distinct, instantaneous, non-persisting individuals. So i would say it would be a non sequitur, as the notion that things cannot explain their persistence does not mean persistence does not exist!.

Denies obvious empirical observations: It would deny that entities other then God have any causal contribution to anything in the universe.

Potentially collapses into pantheism: From a Thomistic point of view, this is exactly what we should expect given the Scholastic metaphysical principle *agere sequitur esse* or “action follows being” – the thesis that the way a thing *acts* reflects the manner in which it *exists*. If a thing does not really *do* anything at all, then neither can it truly be said to be real. It is for this reason that some Thomists argue that occasionalism collapses into pantheism. Pantheism which is the belief that all-things compose an all-encompassing, immanent god. Thus, no distinction between the universe and God. Which means the essence/existence distinction falls flat because God has its essence and existence to be the identical and is the universe.


So in the end, it seems that anyone using this argument are reduced to undermining their own theology by presupposing certain theories of time, persistence and causation, which can conflate with their own views. This leads to the success of Malebranche DCA. As a consequence, the explanation for the persistence of things would itself entail the non existence of persistence and possibly fall into pantheism.

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gantlet yaka

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THE BEST Multimeter tutorial (HD) - YouTube Reloj para armar - Éter - YouTube Esto es Eter Eter Aleter - YouTube YouTube

Home Basis Chemie Organische Lösemittel Glycolether. Glycolether aus der Chemikaliengruppe Organische Lösungsmittel. Gylcolether wird als Lösungsmittel und vor allem in Anstrichmitteln verwendet. Diese Lösungsmittel haben typischerweise einen höheren Siedepunkt, zusammen mit den vorteilhaften Lösungsmitteleigenschaften von Ethern und Alkoholen niedrigerer Molekülmassen. Glycolether sind ... Ether-Basis TPU Schläuche mit Stahlspirale zum Absaugen und Förderung von lebensmittel Pulver, Mehl, Futter, Granulate, verschiedener Abriebniveau Ether-Basis TPU Schläuche mit PVC Spirale zum Absaugen und Förderung von lebensmittel Pulver, Mehl, Futter, Granulate, verschiedener Abriebniveau TPE Schläuche für Förderung von Lebensmitteln ... Auf Basis Ester können wir folgende Qualitäten anbieten. 40-001 bis 014 PUR unter dieser Reihe verarbeiten wir ein hochwertiges System auf Basis MDI. Der Härtebereich beginnt bei 55° und endet bei 95° Shore A. Diese Qualitätsreihe auch eingefärbt lieferbar, wobei die Grundfarbe hell ist, im niedrigen Härtebereich auch transparent. Die physikalischen Werte dieser Qualität verkörpern ... Bitte erstellen Sie einen kostenlosen Basis-Account, um eigene Daten zu hinterlegen. Jetzt kostenfrei anmelden. Weitere Unternehmen. Besucher, die sich für Pascal Eter Bausparkassenvertreter interessiert haben, interessierten sich auch für: Doris Niedecker Finanzdienstleistungen 51545 Waldbröl, Deutschland Rainer Englert 51545 Waldbröl, Deutschland Süleyman Eser Bausparverträge ... Home Basis Chemie Organische Lösemittel Ester. Ester aus der Chemikaliengruppe Organische Lösungsmittel. Ester wird beispielsweise als Aromastoff, Bestandteil von Arzneistoffen und für die Herstellung von Bio-Diesel benut. Ester bilden in der Chemie eine Stoffgruppe chemischer Verbindungen, die durch eine Kondensationsreaktion entstehen. Es gibt Ester von organischen Säuren (z. B ...

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THE BEST Multimeter tutorial (HD) - YouTube

Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube. Sabrás es el segundo tema de nuestro EP "Atmósfera", grabado, producido y masterizado en Jabba Studio. ¡Si te gustó no olvides darle like y suscribirte a nuestro canal para conocer todo ... Eter Aleter uploaded a video 3 years ago 1:46. مهما علوت تعود لأصلك للشيخ سلمان ... 1. Destroyer Books 2. Classes and online tutoring 3. Study Group De karakteristieke groep van de esters, de naamgeving, de synthese en de hydrolyse. Met behulp van de video's van slaag je gegarandeerd v...